2 edition of efficacy of lead arsenate in controlling the codling moth found in the catalog.
efficacy of lead arsenate in controlling the codling moth
Ralph Henry Smith
in [Berkeley, Calif., University of California printing office
Written in English
|Statement||by Ralph Henry Smith ...|
|LC Classifications||SB945 .C7, S6 1925 .C7|
|The Physical Object|
|Pagination||1 p. l., p. -453.|
|Number of Pages||453|
|LC Control Number||27012462|
Until the s, Northwest apple growers spent decades spraying lead arsenate pesticides in a never-ceasing battle against the codling moth, which once threatened the country’s most productive. Farming's Toxic Legacy It relied on pesticides like lead arsenate, which helped control insects like the codling moth, an apple-loving scourge that .
The larva of the fruit-tree leaf-roller bores into the nut in Bull. ] THE CODLING MOTH IN WALNUTS 11 much the same manner as the larva of the codling moth. The two larvae are of about the same size, but the larva of the leaf -roller when feeding in walnuts is cream colored while that of the codling moth is more frequently pink when full-grown. Journal of Economic Entomology. College Agricultural Experiment Station alfalfa animals antenna aphids apiary appear apple applied army worm arsenate of lead arsenate of lime Association beekeepers beetles borer bran mash breeding brood brown-tail Bureau of Entomology cage caterpillars cent chinch bug codling moth Committee corn cornicles.
Codling moth granulosis virus (sold as Cyd-X) is a safe biological pesticide that won’t harm beneficials or bees. Add 1% horticultural oil to increase effectiveness. Apply every seven days after eggs hatch, at least three or four times per generation. Spinosad is a low-toxicity pesticide made more effective by adding 1% horticultural oil. The effectiveness of lead arsenate was improved, first, by the addition of summer oil which killed eggs and held the lead arsenate more firmly to the fruit, and second, by the addition of nicotine sulfate to the lead arsenate-oil which killed adult moths.
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In the early s the U.S. Department of Agriculture determined that spraying lead arsenate on fruit trees was a highly effective barrier to infestations of codling moth caterpillars. The agency began promoting it and orchardists across the country were happy to find a way to control the pest that could knock out entire crops.
To control the infestations, lead and arsenic were combined to form lead arsenate and sprayed on fruit trees. Unfortunately, the codling moth grew more resistant, and more and more lead arsenate was applied to repel the potent pest. This resulted in a buildup of lead and arsenic in the soils.
As elements, lead and arsenic do not break down. Lead arsenate (PbHAsO 4) was first used in apple orchards in the ’s to combat the codling moth, Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus), a destructive insect of apples.
This inorganic pesticide was very popular among farmers due to its immediate effectiveness. It was also inexpensive, easy to mix and very persistent. Over the next six decades, lead arsenate.
The control of codling moth with E In comparative trials, carried out for one year in an orchard of heavily infested Cox's Orange trees, % Ef proved as effective as lead arsenate for the control of codling moth.
Cookies on CAB Direct Like most websites we use : E. Loewel, H. Reich. Experiments in which DDT was compared with lead arsenate for the control of the codling moth [Cydia pomonella, L] on apple were carried out in two orchards in Delaware during The spray formulae and programmes and the results of the tests are given in detail in tables; suitable fungicides were included in almost all sprays.
The quantities of spray ingredients Author: P. Rice, L. Stearns. proposed in place of lead arsenate in codling moth control, principally be- cause it avoids lead residues. Arsenates and arsenites of many limeof the other elements have been investi- gated for insecticidal use arsenicalbut none has been developed Calciuminto satisfactory mate- rials.
Organic arsenicals have likewise. Lead arsenate (PbHAsO 4) was first used in apple orchards in the s to combat the codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), a destructive insect pest. This pesticide was very popular among farmers because of its effectiveness, low cost, ease of use, and persistence.
Over the next 60 years the frequency and amount of lead arsenate applications. At that time, the codling moth was becoming resistant to lead arsenate. The only reason it had much effect by this time, Peryea said, was because orchardists were spraying so much of it. They Loved LA. LA was introduced in in Massachusetts for use against the gypsy moth.
Two other arsenical pesticides (copper acetoarsenite, known as “Paris green,” and calcium arsenate) also were in use, although LA largely replaced them in the s due to lower cost, greater efficacy, and lower by: Lead arsenate (PbHAsO 4) was first used in apple orchards in the s to combat the codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), a destructive insect pest.
Development of resistance to lead arsenate and DDT in codling moth resulted in a shift to organophosphate insecticides (Croft, BraderBarnes & Moffitt ). Codling moth control with organophosphates, especially azinphosmethyl, has formed the basis for management systems in apple over the past 25 years (Hoyt ).
EXPERIMENTS FOR THE CONTROL OF THE CODLING MOTH ó. test of lead arsenate at a dilution of 3 pounds to 50 gallons was made. The fruit used in this test turned out to be per cent wormy, as. compared with fruit per cent wormy in a test of lead arsenate at.
a dilution of 1 pound to 50 gallons. forest insect pests. Lead arsenate remained the preferred insecticide for codling moth control because of its greater efficacy and lower phytotoxicity. Calcium arsenate use was reported in the USA and Peru (Shepard, ) and it was particularly popular in Germany (Balachowsky and Mesnil, ).
Aluminum arsenate insecticides were developed and. Lead hydrogen arsenate, also called lead arsenate, acid lead arsenate or LA, chemical formula PbHAsO 4, is an inorganic insecticide used primarily against the potato beetle.
 Lead arsenate was the most extensively used arsenical principal formulations of lead arsenate were marketed: basic lead arsenate (Pb 5 OH(AsO 4) 3, CASN: ) and acid lead arsenate.
The increase in application frequency was due to the development of resistance against lead arsenate, the primary agent used for codling moth control dur- ing this period (Hough ; Croft and Riedl ). Lead arsenate use in USA effectively terminated inwhen DDT became widely available to the public. By that time, the principal target pest, codling moth, had developed resistance to the arsenate compound, and DDT was found to be a much more effective control.
biological control of codling moth. Bacteria. Bacillus thuringiensisBt) is the (most widely used biopesticide (Lacey et al. Although codling moth larvae are susceptible to Cry 1 and some of the other Bt toxins (Andermatt et al.
; Falcon & Huber ; Cross et al. ; Rang et al. ), its value as a control agent of codling moth is. In the search for a program for applying some organic insecticide to control th codling moth that would equal in effectiveness the heavy spray schedules of lead arsenate at present required in.
areas of severe codling moth infestation, hundreds of tests of various fixed-nicotine combinations have been conducted by a number of State, Federal. Lead arsenate (PbHAsO4) was first used in apple orchards in the s to combat the codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), a destructive insect pest.
This pesticide was very popular among farmers because of its effectiveness, low cost, ease of use, and persistence.
But by the s, the codling moth grew resistant. Lead arsenate began to lose its effectiveness — much like Roundup on modern cornfields where weeds became more .By the use of lead arsenate had become the recommended control against the first generation of these moths while nicotine v/as still used against the second generation.
15 Codl ing moth. — Nicotine was first tried in against the codling moth (Carpocapsa pomonella (L.)), which' is a serious post wherever apple trees are grown.Lead arsenate was first used about It has been used chiefly for controlling codling moths, weevils, grasshoppers, Japanese beetles, cankerworms, leaf rollers, tomato fruitworms, bud worms, scale, plum curculio, cabbageworms, potato bugs, and tobacco hornworms.
Lead arsenate is a stomach poison, with very little contact activity when.